The loss of voluntary movement in the right or left part of the body due to neurological pathology is called as hemiplegia or stroke. The most common causes of hemiplegia are occlusion of cerebral vessels or cerebral hemorrhage. The other conditions that cause stroke are head trauma, brain tumor and various infections.

Risk factors

Risk factors for hemiplegia are known as age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart diseases, smoking, hyperlipidemia, obesity, sedentary life, family history of hemiplegia, and previous stroke history. It is more common in men than women. Incidence increases with age. Age, gender, family history is the risk factors that cannot be changed. But the other risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and high blood sugar can be modified and controlled.


The first treatment of patients with hemiplegia is carried out in the neurology inpatient clinics. Then, physical therapy and rehabilitation program should be started as soon as early.

In the first period, the passive range of motion exercises should be performed. In order to prevent decubitus ulcers, the patient’s position should be changed every 2 hours. Also, to be given information to patients and their caregiver about this topic is very important.

After the acute period, the rehabilitation program should be continued in the ward or outpatient units, especially according to patient's condition.

The aim of rehabilitation is to regain functional capacity and to make patients as much as independent in their daily lives. The rehabilitation program is planned after the patient is examined. Passive or active range of motion exercises, muscle strengthening exercises, balance exercises, gait training and robotic rehabilitation are some of the rehabilitation methods. Some orthoses can be used to prevent the development of joint limitations and also to help walking.

Some unwelcomed conditions such as pressure sores, joint limitations, and osteoporosis may occur in these patients. Therefore, these patients should be followed regularly.